Comparative analysis of the demographic situation in the Russian Federation, the Far Eastern Federal District and the Khabarovsk Territory for 2010–2022
Over the past three decades, demographic processes in the Russian Federation and the Far East have undergone a significant transformation. For the Far East, the main trends have been a decrease in the population, its natural and migration decline, and vice versa, an increase in the mortality rate of the population of working age. Pandemic of coronavirus infection in the region in 2020–2021 was accompanied by an increase in the mortality rate of the population, an increasing natural decline in the population and a decrease in life expectancy.
The Khabarovsk Territory in terms of most demographic indicators (population density, birth rate, total birth rate and infant mortality) occupies a middle position between the Russian Federation and the Far Eastern Federal District. At the same time, in terms of mortality, the region has indicators higher than the average for the Russian Federation and the Far Eastern Federal District, and in terms of life expectancy, on the contrary, it is lower than in the Russian Federation and the Far Eastern Federal District.
All this creates risks for solving the geostrategic task of increasing the number and securing the population in the Far East.
This article is devoted to the assessment of demographic processes in the Russian Federation, the Far Eastern Federal District and the Khabarovsk Territory for 2010–2022.
Servicewomen’s social protection as an object of health management process
The servicewomen’s number in the modern armies of most of world increases year on year. However, combat hardships can be successfully combined with anatomico-physiological characteristics of a female body under the stipulation that women are provided with appropriate social protection. Otherwise, there occurs an overfatigue in the female body, which is manifested by the development of various diseases. Therefore, the issue of organizing the fringe benefits’ implementation completeness monitoring for servicewomen is a crucial hygienic task.
Aim – collection of evidence of the military authorities’ ability to conduct the health management process for the timely and full implementation of servicewomen’s social protection.
Material and methods. Methods of scientific analysis and comparison of legislative and other statutory acts that impose requirements for troop service, military service security, and hygienic rating, were applied.
Results. The resources presently available in the Russian Armed Forces’ medical service preclude from organizing an objective and reliable monitoring of compensations and benefits’ implementation completeness for servicewomen.
Discussion. The military medical service mainly has documentary and visual control methods, and test laboratories located in formations, associations, military districts (fleets), are inappropriate for hazard identification, instrumental measurement of the military labor’s health and safety hazards, or final sanitary audit of the military service conditions at all working places of military personnel, including women, in a military unit.
Conclusion. To obtain objective, accurate and reliable results of the health management process in general, and of the servicewomen’s social protection implementation completeness in particular, it is necessary to approve the “special assessment of servicemembers’ working environment” model for implementation as a mandatory procedure in test laboratories of the Russian Armed Forces’ medical service.
Sociological study of the creative abilities of young doctors
Background. Creativity is a passion for innovation, which has been the lot of a few for centuries. The study of the consequences of creativity going beyond art seems extremely timely for representatives of different professions, including medical workers. The article considers one of the possibilities of didactic support for the education of creativity when mastering the profession of a doctor.
Aim – to identify latent creative intentions of young doctors in working with tools with the usage of the method of content analysis
Material and methods. As part of the “Workshop for residents in case of temporary transfer of the discipline “Pedagogics” to a remote format,” students were asked to write an interview with a working tool, for example, with an ultrasound machine. 479 people took part in independent work for 2 years, 131 of them (27%) chose a creative task. Data processing was carried out by the content analysis method, using the Microsoft 365 (Office) platform and the Anti-Plagiarism service (http://psma.antiplagiat.ru, document No. 883). The coding system is based on the frequency, direction, intensity and space of the text content.
Results. The affiliation of 2216 units of account to the three studied lexical and semantic fields of the concept of “creativity” was revealed: creative thinking – 2.25%, creativity as self-realization, professional growth – 58.3%, creativity as a responsibility for the introduction of innovations – 39.44%. The frequency analysis of three lexical and semantic fields revealed the dominant semantic units of creative attitude to working tools: in thinking – speed and ease (1.8%), in professional growth – teamwork (8.07%), in responsibility for the introduction of innovations – pain relief, elimination of discomfort during therapeutic measures (7.01%), kindness (11.47%), reduction of time to solve patient’s problems (4.7%).
Conclusion. The analysis of the data indicates the possibility of intensifying the meaning of creativity in the medical profession due to the client-oriented clinical thinking. Recommendations on didactic support for the development of creative abilities of residents are given.
Planned scope of work as a component of the labor rationing system
The labor rationing system, like any system, consists of interacting parts that create a certain integrity. The system includes: labor standards – norms of time and norms of number; volume of actual and planned work; the number of medical workers required to perform the scope of work.
Aim of the study is to determine the possibilities of using documents on the current planning of the volume of medical care to calculate the required number of positions of medical workers and create an information platform for making managerial decisions.
Material and methods. An analysis of the Programs of state guarantees for the provision of free medical care and Explanations on the formation and economic justification of territorial programs over the past 3 years is presented, as well as a reconstruction of individual planning and regulatory data for a longer period of time. The data of statistical collections, publications on the research topic were used. The analytical method of research is applied.
Results. The analysis showed that, given the current state of the legal and regulatory framework for labor, calculations of the required number of doctors using the current planning materials reflected in the Program and Clarifications are possible only for doctors of the main specialties providing hospital care. Conclusions are drawn about the need to improve the planning of the volume of medical care, including the necessary information about the planned and normative data for the provision of medical care on an outpatient basis in the context of specialties and in day hospitals in the context of types of medical care. The proposed changes will help determine the required number of medical workers, which are the basis of personnel policy in health care.
The trend towards omni-channel promotion and provision of medical services by medical organizations (market and management aspect)
Omni-channel as a phenomenon and the concept of constantly expanding the number of channels simultaneously used by an organization to promote and sell its products/services has been formed recently and is becoming more common, acquiring the features of a trend. The grounds for this are associated with the digitalization of the economy and life, which creates an increasing variety of forms of communication and opportunities for their mutual situational integration.
The article presents the main motives and benefits of medical organizations from the use of omni-channeling, the mechanism of action of omni-channeling, and the use of omni-channeling in accompanying and stimulating the patient journey (CJM). The widest possible set of channels is considered, from which a modern medical organization forms its portfolio of channels targeted for itself. A checklist is provided for self-checking the possibility of selecting additional channels for a medical organization.
Speech recognition technology in radiology: impact on report preparation time
Speech recognition technology is becoming increasingly widespread in the Russian healthcare system. However, the medical community still has questions about the effectiveness of using voice input to complete medical documentation. Radiology was one of the first medical specialties where large-scale implementation of speech recognition technology was carried out. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effectiveness of speech recognition technology in the report preparation of different types of radiological studies.
Material and methods. A retrospective study was conducted at the Moscow Reference Center of the Centre of Diagnostics and Telemedicine. In the study 12 912 radiological reports prepared by 67 radiologists from May-November, 2022 were included by simple random sampling. The following study types were included: fluorography, diagnostic mammography, chest CT scan for suspected COVID-19, MRI of the brain with contrast, and CT of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis with contrast. Voice2Med software was used to fill the reports of radiological studies. Intergroup comparison was done by Mann-Whitney U-criterion with the statistical significance level of 0.05.
Results. The average duration of preparation of fluorographic study reports in the keyboard input group was 189.9 sec (0:03:09), in the voice input group 236.2 sec (0:03:56) (p<0.0001), for mammographic studies – 387.1 (0:06:27) and 444.8 sec (0:07:24) (p<0.0001), for radiographic studies – 247.8 (0:04:07) and 189.0 sec (0:03:09) (p<0.0001), for chest CT scan – 379.7 (0:06:19) and 382.7 sec (0:06:22) (p=0.12), for brain MRI – 709.9 (0:11:49) and 559.9 sec (0:09:19) (p<0.0001) and for chest, abdominal, and pelvic CT with contrast – 2714.6 sec (0:45:15) and 1778.4 sec (0:29:38), respectively.
Conclusion. The use of speech recognition technology in the preparation of radiological study reports demonstrated varying efficacy. The lowest efficiency was obtained when preparing reports of screening studies (fluorography and mammography). The highest efficiency was achieved in the preparation of reports of CT and MRI examinations.
The results of the study ethanol-containing drinks poisoning mortality the population 18–59 aged (on the example of the Chelyabinsk Region)
The mortality from external causes ranks 3rd in the structure of mortality in the Russian Federation. On the 2nd place of mortality from external causes is mortality from injuries and poisoning. At the same time, the peak of mortality from external causes falls on the age period of 20–60 years – the age of active working capacity, which determines the high biosocioeconomic significance and is a challenge for the development of effective preventive measures aimed at reducing the mortality of the working-age population.
The aim – to study the dynamics of mortality in the Chelyabinsk Region of young and middle age from the toxic effects of ethyl alcohol (age 18–59 years in accordance with the classification of the World Health Organization) for the period 2012–2021.
Material and methods. Mortality trends were analyzed taking into account the distribution by gender and territorial characteristics (cities and rural areas, large cities), and the above criteria were correlated with each other. The indicators were analyzed both in absolute and relative terms. The choice of the age period of 18–59 years is due to the greatest economic significance, since the population of this age is actively able-bodied, as well as the largest contribution to the overall structure of mortality.
Results and discussion. It was revealed that more than 80% of those who died from ethanol poisoning are males. There were no significant differences between the age groups of 18–44 years and 45–59 years. A downward trend was found in mortality from ethanol poisoning in urban and rural areas for the period 2012–2021 by 55%, except for the middle-aged population of Magnitogorsk (due to the male population) and the young male population of Chelyabinsk.
Generally, in urban and rural areas, a general trend towards a decrease in mortality from ethanol poisoning over the period 2012–2021 was revealed by 55% for the male and female population. At the same time, in large cities: Chelyabinsk, Magnitogorsk – the mortality rate of young men (in Chelyabinsk) and middle (in Magnitogorsk) is growing, and the mortality rate of young women is also increasing (in Magnitogorsk).
Conclusion. Existing measures aimed at reducing alcohol consumption by the population have some effect on reducing mortality from poisoning with ethanol-containing drinks. However, mortality from toxic exposure to ethanol is still one of the leading causes of premature death. In this regard, the need for further study of the factors affecting the alcoholization of the population is determined for the scientific substantiation of preventive measures for alcohol abuse and, as a result, reducing mortality from ethanol poisoning.
Public dental organisations in the digital age: the relevance of information transparency and data reliability
Reliable and transparent digital information has an important place in public health. Patients undergoing dental treatment can benefit from this transparency. In the new era of transparency, the patients’ choice will be the relevance of the information data.
The main aim of the study is to evaluate the transparency of patient information on the official websites of medical dental organisations.
The research methods are based on an analytical approach, applying systematic, logical and comparative analysis of different sources.
Results and discussion. Analysis of transparency of information about the activity of state dental medical organizations on official websites showed different information transparency and reliability of data: from insufficient data on websites of medical organizations to actual qualitative information, with data both for patients and medical workers.
Conclusion. Transparency of information is one of the key determinants of patient trust in healthcare organisations. Transparent information helps patients to establish communication and increase trust in doctors and health care providers.